Electrode treatment of Parkinson, major depression, dystonia, epilepsy and pains caused by neurovascular compression.
Surgery for Epilepsy and Refractory Epilepsy
Refractory epilepsy is understood to be epilepsy which does not respond to treatment by antiepileptic medicines. It is characterised by the fact that the patient continues to suffer seizures despite taking more than one type of medicine. This may occur in both adults and children.
Medically, we say that epilepsy is resistant to drugs when two attempts at high-dosage monotherapy have been tried with two different antiepileptic drugs, as well as one attempt at polytherapy.
The three big groups of patients who are appropriate for operation are those who suffer:
- Partial epileptic seizures, which may be:
- Secondarily generalised seizures such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
- Multifocal unilateral epilepsy associated with hemiplegia in children.
In these cases it is necessary to complete a study with nuclear magnetic resonance with small cuts. This is known as MRI protocol for epilepsy. With a study we can find physical blockers in the brain which may be the cause of the resistance to treatment. Among these causes are tumours, cysts, vascular anomalies which develop in the brain. We may also find atrophy and sclerosis of a part of the brain called the hippocampus.